Implementing iterator blocks in C++ (part 2: Win32 Fibers)

Fibers were added to Windows NT to support cooperative multitasking. They can be thought as lightweight threads that must be manually scheduled by the application.

When a fiber is created, it is passed a fiber-start function. The OS then assigns it a separate stack and sets up execution to begin at this fiber-start function. To schedule this fiber, you need to switch to it manually and when running, a fiber can then suspend itself by yielding execution to another fiber, or back to “calling” fiber. In other words, fibers are a perfect tool to implement coroutines sequencing.

These two articles, from Dr.Dobb’s and MSDN Magazine, explain how to implement coroutines using the Fiber API. The MSDN Magazine article also shows how to do this in .NET (it was written before the release of .NET 2.0, so before iterators were available in C#. But actually Fibers don’t get along well with the CLR). Together with an old series of Raymond Chen’s blog posts, these articles have been the main source of inspiration for this small project. (In this article Duffy proposes another possible implementations of coroutines based on threads, which is however quite inefficient).

Interestingly, a Fiber-based implementation does not have the limitations of (state machine based) C# iterators; with fibers it is possible to yield the control from any function in a stack frame. There are other problems, though.

Fibers are like dynamite

The Win32 Fiber API is quite simple. The first thing to do is to convert the thread on which the fibers will run into a fiber, by calling ConvertThreadToFiber. After this, additional fibers are created using CreateFiber passing as parameter the address of the function to execute, just as the threadProc for real threads. Then, a fiber can suspend itself and start the execution of another fiber by calling SwitchToFiber. Finally, when the application has done using fibers, it can convert the “main” fiber back to a normal thread with ConvertFiberToThread.

There are a few important caveats to consider:

  • It is difficult to write a library or framework that uses fibers, because the entire program must be designed to support them.  For example, the function ConvertThreadToFiber must be called only once in a thread.
  • Since each fiber has its own stack, it also has its own SEH exception chain. This means that if a fiber throws an exception, only that fiber can catch it. The same is true for C++ exceptions. Exceptions cannot pass across fibers’ “boundaries”.
  • The default stack size is 1MB, so using many fibers can consume a lot of memory.
  • The code must be “fiber-safe”, but most code is designed to be just “thread-safe”. For example, using thread-local storage does not work with fibers, and in fact Windows Vista introduced an API for Fiber local storage. More importantly, the CRT was not completely fiber-safe in the past, and I am not sure it is now. There are also compiler options to set in Visual Studio, like /GT, which enables only Fiber-safe code optimizations.

In other words, as Raymond Chen put it, “Fibers are like dynamite. Mishandle them and your process explodes”.  Therefore, this framework for iterators and Linq-like operators we’ll define should be used VERY CAREFULLY in real programs.
(And if you think things are bad in C++, consider that fibers are practically unusable with .NET managed code!)

Implementation details

Putting all these caveats aside, let’s see how coroutines can be implemented with fibers. This is the declaration of a Fiber class I created as a thin wrapper over the Win32 Fiber API.

class Fiber
    virtual ~Fiber();

    static void enableFibersInCurrentThread();
    static bool disableFibersInCurrentThread();

    void* main();
    void* resume();

    virtual void run() = 0;
    void yield(bool goOn);

    static void WINAPI fiberProc(void* lpFiberParameter);

    PFIBER_START_ROUTINE _previousFiber;

    enum FiberState {
        FiberCreated, FiberRunning, FiberStopPending, FiberStopped
    FiberState _state;

The Fiber class exposes the static functions enableFibersInCurrentThread and disableFibersInCurrentThread that wrap the initialization/termination functions.
The constructor creates a new fiber object, specifying Fiber::fiberProc as the function to execute.

Fiber::Fiber() :
    _fiber = (PFIBER_START_ROUTINE)::CreateFiber(256 * 1024, fiberProc, this);

As said, fibers use cooperative multitasking: the execution of a fiber must be explicitly scheduled by the application by calling SwitchToFiber. This is encapsulated by the method resume below:

bool Fiber::resume()
    if (nullptr == _fiber || _state == FiberStopped) {
        return false;

    _previousFiber = (PFIBER_START_ROUTINE)::GetCurrentFiber();
    assert(_previousFiber != _fiber);


    if (_exceptionCaught) {
        throw _exception;

    return (FiberRunning == _state);

When the fiber is started with SwitchToFiber, it begins executing from the fiberProc method, which calls main:

void CALLBACK Fiber::fiberProc(void* pObj)
    Fiber* pFiber = (Fiber*)pObj;
    void* previousFiber = pFiber->main();

What main does is simply to call the abstract function run, which any class derived from Fiber needs to implement.
Inside run we can at some point yield the execution to a different Fiber object, calling its resume method, so effectively creating a “stack” of fibers nested into each other. Or, we can yield the execution to the previously running fiber (the one that launched the current one), calling the method yield (equivalent to yield return and yield break in C#):

void Fiber::yield(bool goOn)
    if (! goOn) {
        _state = FiberStopped; // yield break

Logically this works like the sequence of nested function calls in a thread stack, but of course there is no physical stack here, and we can return back to the caller only by storing a pointer to the previous fiber and explicitly yielding control to it.

Since exceptions cannot travel outside a fiber, the call to run is wrapped in a try-catch clause which tries to catch any kind of exceptions (even Win32 exceptions). If caught, data about an exception is stored, the fiber is stopped and the fiberProc ends restarting the execution of the previous fiber, inside the resume function. Here exceptions can be re-created and re-thrown in the context of the previous fiber, so effectively forwarding them back, up on the “fiber stack”. Not sure this is a very elegant workaround, but I could not find a better solution.

void* Fiber::main()
    _state = FiberRunning;
    _exceptionCaught = false;

    try {
    catch (StopFiberException&)
        _state = FiberStopped;
    catch (std::exception& e)
        _exception = e;
        _exceptionCaught = true;
        _state = FiberStopped;
    catch (...)
        _exception = std::exception("win32 exception");
        _exceptionCaught = true;
        _state = FiberStopped;

    _state = FiberStopped;
    return _previousFiber;

Finally, when we have done with a fiber object, we can delete it, so releasing all the resources it had allocated and the memory of its stack.

    if (_state == FiberRunning) {
        _previousFiber = (PFIBER_START_ROUTINE)::GetCurrentFiber();
        _state = FiberStopPending;


The Fiber class is the main building block in the implementation of coroutines. What is left to do is just to write classes that inherit from Fiber and implement in the virtual function run the actual coroutines code to execute.
In the next posts we’ll see how to use the Fiber class to implement iterator blocks that work like in C#, implementing the IEnumerable and IEnumerator interfaces, and how to use this to reimplement many Linq operators.

If you are curious, you can look at the sources of this small project. A first code drop (still quite a preliminary version) is available in this source repository on Google code.
Let me know your comments and suggestions, if you are so kind to have a look.

6 thoughts on “Implementing iterator blocks in C++ (part 2: Win32 Fibers)

  1. Thank you for your post. Very helpful.

    How does this work with a thread pool with each thread enabling fiber via Fiber::enableFibersInCurrentThread() ?
    Also, If lets say a fiber in thread A yields to another fiber in thread B ? Could that be a bad thing (context switch etc…) or is it preferable to try to avoid this kind of situation and make sure fibers yields in the context of the same thread always.


    1. Hi Radads,

      Yes it is possible to move execution from a thread to another by using fibers. And there are many possible problems with this (consider for example using library code that relies on thread local storage).
      I think that the best book to learn more about this is Joe Duffy’s “Concurrent Programming on Windows):

      In fact I don’t think fibers are much used nowadays.

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